Establish relationship between land reforms, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture friendly land reforms in India.Land reform refers to the changes in which the agricultural land is held, and it is cultivated so as to achieve the economic objectivesDue to the exploitative nature of British land revenue policies, post Independence India observed very high inequality in land ownership, with the small and marginal farmers being the worst affectedRole of land reforms in agriculture development
Abolition of Intermediaries: It included abolition of Zamindari, Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems checking the debt trap and dispossession of land of small farmers → Reduce the agricultural poverty
Tenancy Reform: It ensured Rent Regulation, Security of land tenure and conferment of ownership rights on tenants. It helped in increasing the agricultural productivity
Land ceiling act and Bhoodan Movement – Land for cultivation became available to landless labour → agricultural production increased.
Consolidation of landholdings – This prevented the ill effects of fragmentation like poor farm mechanisation
Cooperative farming – This reduced input cost, allowed scaling of cultivation and access to large credit while minimising risk in case of crop failure (Kudumbashree model in Kerala)
Land Records: Digitization of Land Records helps in reducing litigation
Difficulties in designing Agriculture friendly land reforms:
Misuse of legal loopholes
Lack of motivation towards cooperative farming
Lack of motivation by the state governments.
Example – Assam has repealed its land consolidation act due to its poor effectiveness
Cumbersome process and implementation officials are often slow and corrupt
Socio cultural factors like traditional sentiments attached with the land and caste hierarchy also hindered the smooth land reforms